Tank you very much, it's...

Campaign 1 logo

EMPIRE * £34.99 * 1/2 meg * Mouse/keyboard * Out now

War. What is it god for? Absolutely nothing, except for the loads and loads of ace wartime simulations killing multitudes of the enemy.
Yes, you can be transported back in time to the early 40s and fight World War II against the Bosh. Yes indeed, for only £34.99 you can go and show Hitler exactly what you think of him. A bargain. Re-live the war without any chance of getting blown up or shot at.

Computer games - I love 'em. You can be transported to space one minute and then off to the Middle Ages and then win the war and still be back home in time for tea.

There are two types of war game - the run around, shoot lots of soldiers and watch the blood fly everywhere type, like Fireforce, and the climb into a tank or plane and strategically win the war that way by looking at maps and deciding which tactics to use against the enemy type.

Campaign is of the latter kind and is billed on the box as the most comprehensive military simulation of warfare in World War II. Well it could be true, but you'll just have to wait until the end of the review to find out.

Basically Campaign is a pure strategy game, but it does have a certain 'arcade' element to it. This so-called 'arcade' bit is where you take control of the tank platoons and choose any tank to run around in blowing other tanks up. More about that later.

Job-wise, Campaign is very flexible indeed. If yo want to be a lowly tank driver then that's up to you, but you can take the position of a General or even take the top job as Field Marshall - or you can do all three!

As General, you control the fighting of an individual battle with tanks plus artillery and air support. As the Field Marshall, not only do you stay about 35 miles away from the battle supping tea and scoffing biscuits without any fear of getting shot or blown up, you also get to co-ordinate the strategy for all the tanks, convoys, aircraft, ships and production centres.

Lowly tank driver is the job for me though, going wild in a nice big tank with a nice big gun blowing away the enemy for King and Country and shouting "Yah boo sucks" to the Hun.
It's much more exciting than sitting behind a desk looking at maps, but that's only a personal opinion.

To be perfectly honest I'm not a huge fan of proper strategy games, but I liked Campaign for two reasons. One, it had a bit of action in it, unlike some other strategy games I could mention, and two, it is so damn authentic.

For starters, included in the package is the use guide which gives you a historical background to the war. You also get two World War II propaganda posters and postcards, plus a D-Day landings battle plan map - you even get an authentic wartime newspaper reprint.

You certainly feel more involved with the game than you would with just a couple of disks and a flimsy manual. Obviously a lot of work has gone into Campaign in trying to make it as real as possible. This must have taken a lot of research and also a lot of time.

For instance, you get another manual with all the tanks, aircraft and ships in it which it gives you all sorts of information on each one, ranging from speed to weight to the date it was first available. As well as being informative it also serves as the manual protection.

Everything is just so accurate and absolutely huge. For instance the playing area covers up to an amazing ten million square kilometres and features detailed towns, villages, rivers and woodlands.

You can take full command of up to 3,000 vehicles of which there are over 150 vehicle types on over 20 historically accurate maps. Locations of the maps range form the desert wastes of the Sahara to the decisive D-day landings. And if that isn't enough there is a map editor which allows you to modify the existing maps and create new ones of your own, so the possibilities are endless.

In fact if you fancy it you can even swap sides and take control of the German army. Just think you could be a Hitler re-incarnate. Gulp!

Right, back to the 'arcade' tank driving bit. If any of you have seen Pacific Islands, also by Empire, then you'll realise by looking at the screenshots that the tank bit of the game looks very similar.

Well, yes it is, but that's not a bad thing is it, because Pacific Islands was pretty good as well. The actual driving of the tank is really easy and simply involves nine keys of the keyboard. After a few plays of the game it becomes second nature. Oh, and I can recommend blowing up some houses in the town, just for laugh.

So is Campaign going to be as victorious as our good old British Tommies were, or will it end up growing a small moustache and shooting itself in a small bunker in Berlin?
Well overall this is a really good game, but I'm afraid a lot of people tend to ignore this type of thing. They probably think that strategy is for incredibly boring people, but it's not true - that's just stereotyping strategy fans.

Right, if people get over their strategy fears then I think that Campaign could become a good seller and could be up the charts before you know it.
The only niggle that I have is that after a few hours play it tended to get a bit boring - no, not boring exactly, but I started losing interest.

Other than that I can't really complain - top marks go to the actual presentation of the game, plus I forgot to mention the excellent introduction disk that comes with it. It features some great graphics and some sampled speech and is a good, err, introduction to the game.

So, if you feel like you want to go and bash the Bosh and defeat the evil tyrant Hitler, Campaign could well be the game for you. Tank you and goodnight.

Campaign 1 logo

Dust off your ration books and prepare to be bored to death by granddad. Alternatively, you could drag him over to your Amiga, stick him in front of Empire's new World War II strategy sim and chortle wickedly as he tries to plug in the mouse...

Ah, let's see now... nice box. Ooh - some genuine World War II propaganda posters and postcards... a battle plan map of the D-Day landings... an authentic wartime newspaper reprint. By 'eck, there is even a game in here, as well!

Before we continue, be warned. Campaign is no Speedball 2 or Swiv. It is not a game to set your adrenaline level soaring as you attempt deftly elbow your mates off the highscore table. Nor will you be beating off sleep deprivation as you try to get past the mutant octopus at the end of level 12. Yes, it is strategy time, folks. That means that it is time to get your thinking helmet on, gird up your synapses, and generally prepare for some major military style method acting.

Sophisticated strategy
But enough frivolity: programmer Jonathan Griffiths takes war seriously, very seriously. He is the guy responsible for US Gold's Conqueror - a complex 3D tank-driving affair the bais form of which seems to have been revived for one of the sections of Campaign.

This time, he's turned his hand to an infinitely grander design: a campaign-based wargaming system that combines sophisticated strategy and simulation tactics with three dimensional battle sequences. If you thought chess was too complicated and a bit cerebral, Campaign makes it look banal and simplistic. If you are fed up with games that only demand mad bashing of the fire button, if you are after a bit of a challenge, then look no further than Campaign.

For a start, this is one hell of an ambitious concept, maybe too ambitious. The World War II setting contains a number of campaigns which, in turn, consist of various battles.

Much of the hard strategy of these situations is centred around high-level tactical decisions where, no matter how experienced the fighting force, bad planning will lead to disaster. Campaign focuses closely upon the land aspects of the war, but you can also call in air and naval support. You get three disks: a basic introductory disk, the game disk itself and a maps disk. The third one contains previously designed campaign maps with difficulty ratings from the very easy (such as tank battles) to the more difficult (complex wars of attrition).

Convoy control
The best way to get into the game is to closely follow the start up scenario from one of the tutorials in the excellent manual. This involves the control of three convoys, an airfield and a production centre. You can examine virtually every aspect of your forces' strengths and weaknesses before sending them in to attack several villages and, eventually, a large town. It is essential to keep the game in Pause mode while you decide how and where to execute your assault. Then, select the game speed, and get on with the battle.

Fortunately for beginners, the complexity of the game has been thoughtfully offset by the friendly control system. You scroll around the map by clicking on the direction arrows. Take action by left-clicking on the desired division and right-clicking on the intended destination. As things begin to get moving, you are given the choice of letting the Amiga get on with the carnage on your behalf; a useful option for players who are not too hot when it comes to keyboard dexterity.

Into battle
Should you opt for manual control, you will first have the opportunity to analyse your forces before going into battle. Next, you may choose to dig in and start lobbing the shells over, or you could go trundling in with the Sherman tanks, in which case you will need to switch over to the 3D perspective, taking your position as tank driver and gunner.

Even this aspect of the game is tortuously realistic, as you consider turret rotation, gun elevation, reloading and the possible use of tracer fire to assist in the selection of targets.

If you become overwhelmed, then you can always call in air support in the form of dive bombers. The problem is that the enemy also has this option and the planes have to fly to your location - which takes time. After a battle, the game gives you a summary: if you deal with the situation well and managed not to comit any large-scale bungles, you may well be awarded a medal.

Whatever happens, the effect the battle had on the fundamental scenario will be taken into account and the Amiga will adjust everything accordingly, before returning you to the map, where you can plan your next action.

Campaign is a stunningly complicated piece of software. It is more of a committed experience than a game and, if you are looking for an instant hit, then you should stay well away. Your enjoyment will depend on your attention span and whether or not you have a genuine interest in wargaming.

Campaign 1 logo

Empire hat ja schon allerhand Erfahrung mit actionbetonten Panzersimulationen, man denke nur an Team Yankee und Pacific Islands. Campaign jedoch ist sowohl mehr als auch weniger...

Es ist nämlich ein Strategiespiel mit Simulations- und Actionselementen, das vor dem Hintergrund des zweiten Weltkriegs angesiedelt ist. Sechzehn Kleinszenarien stehen ebenso zur Bearbeitung an wie vier mittlere und fünf großräumige Sandkästen (z.B. die Ardennenschlacht 1944 oder Rommels Afrikafeldzug), mit denen man Tage und Wochen beschäftigt sein dürfte.

In jedem dieser Kapitel ist bereits unumstößlich festgelegt, für welche Seite man am Mörser steht und welche Ziele erfüllt werden müssen, damit der Rechner einen Sieg anerkennt. Wem das nicht reicht, der kann mit einem komfortablen Editor weitere Ballermissionen zusammenbasteln.

Doch ob nun simple Schlacht oder gewaltiger Feldzug, ob vordefiniert oder selbstgestrickt - zunächst geht es zu einer schlichten und gelegentlich auch etwas fummeligen Übersichtskarte. Mittels eines durchdachten Iconsystems werden nun Marschziele festgelegt, Informationen eingeholt, Nachschub organisiert, (nächtliche) Ruhepausen eingelegt oder etwa Bombardierungen aus der Luft angefordert.

Ja, man kann seine Truppen gar unter Computerkontrolle stellen, was in dieser Phase aber (noch) nicht empfehlenswert ist. Schließlich genügt ein Klick auf die schneller oder langsamer einstellbare Echtzeit-Uhr, und die Geschichte nimmt ihren Lauf.

Kommt es zu Feindbegegnungen, schaltet der Amiga in den Kampfmodus. Man darf sich das Ergebnis nun einfach berechnen lassen oder selbst Hand anlegen, wobei letzteres ganz nach Wunsch von simplen Zuschauen über Teilkontrolle bestimmter Funtionen (Geschützturm, Steuerung) bis hin zur vollständigen Übernahme eine beliebigen Tanks reicht.

Dies kann aber nur dem Spezialisten empfohlen werden, denn erstens dirigiert der Rechner sowieso alle restlichen Einheiten, zweitens tut er das recht ordentlich, und drittens erfordert die manuelle Steuerung via Keyboard doch eine gewisse Einarbeitungszeit. Zudem läßt sich der dreidimensionale Blick aus dem Kommandoturm ja auch ohne weiteres bei voller Digi-Kontrolle genießen, und die Denker werden wiederum der Pausierbarkeit des Geschehens ihren Tribut zollen. Schließlich will man ja zwischendurch ei wenig grübeln können.

Freilich ist die Vektor-Optik auch bei vollem Detailgrad längst nicht so hübsch wie bei den pazifischen Inseln, und die Explosionen erinnern mehr an Karnevalskappen. Egal, für ein derart strrategisch orientiertes Programm ist die Präsentation trotzdem sehr gelungen.

Das teilweise digitalisierte Intro ist sogar rundum beeindruckend, einschließlich der düsteren Titelmusik samt Sprachausgabe. Motorengebrumm und Explosionen im Kampf sind schließlich auch noch zu vermelden, und werden die Grübler sicher ihre Freude an Campaign haben - nur eingefleischte Simulanten und hammerharte Aktionisten könnten sich hier etwas unterfordert fühlen. (jn)

Campaign 1 logo

This could be the end of wargames as we know them. Empire unleash a wargame you can actually play. Eek.

When the Germans invaded Pland on 1st September 1939, a new chapter in the history of warfare was opened. The outmoded concept of trench-digging, which had led to virtually a four-year stalemate in World War I, was swept aside as Poland was crushed by Blitzkried: lightning war. Dive bomber strikes were followed by tanks, which mopped up any remaining resistance, and while Britain and France honoured their treaty with Poland by declaring war on Germany, they were incapable of assisting their ally in the face of such a rapid Invasion.

France was to fall in a similar fashion the following May, its heavily-defended border with Germany simply being bypassed as the aggressors poured in through Belgium. (They want a two-page wargame review? They've got one. Heh heh heh. The Real Jonathan)

Empire's Campaign allows the player to recreate any land battle of the Second World War, from brief skirmishes to the D-Day landings. Over 100 types of tank, truck and artillery are represented, with support, to a limited extent, by air and naval power.

It has all but abandoned the wargame structure

Sadly, while the specifications appear to be exemplary, Campaign has all but abandoned the traditional wargame structure. The concept of the 'phase' facility is available to provide extra manoeuvring time). Our beloved hex is no more, either, replaced by a clean map populated by roads, rivers, hills, towns, factories and airfields.

Most distressing of all, however, is the removal of the player's autonomy. Units now act under their own initiative in the absence of orders form the player, right down to individual tanks on the battlefield. (Actually, this was fine by me. It's the direciton wargames have been heading for a while, now - with the exception of one or two of the really awful ones - and makes the while business a lot more realistic and exciting. Anyway... - The Real Jonathan)

The game is organised in a three tier structure. At the top level, units are moved around on the map in large groups, and overall strategies are planned. Air strikes can also be launched at this level, and visible targets can be shelled. Once two units of opposing sides come into proximity, a battle commences and the game moves down to the next level. Here, individual tanks move around the screen using the bizarre concept of 'animation', and the conflict proceeds until one side is destroyed or retreats.

During the battle, however, and this is the really galling part, the player may at any time take control of an individual tank and play out the battle using what is apparently termed '3D graphics'. Now, this sort of thing really has no place in a contemporary strategy game. Not only does it trivialise the whole concept of the wargame, but it also distracts from and corrupts the strategy developed at the higher.... (Look, actually all this is absolutely brilliant. The strategy side of things can be taken care of in a matter of moments, and you can then actually see the results of your tactics as they're put into practice on the battlefield. And, of course, it's great fun cruising around in a tank shooting other tanks. Especially when it's done as well as this. - The Real Jonathan)

It's easily the best wargame I've played

It's not even as if it's been particularly well...
(Okay, okay, Campaign has its flaws. For a start, graphic updates can be slow and jerky, both during the 3D stuff and when maps are being drawn. And those maps can get messy and confusing when lots of things are close together. The game also suffers from the unintelligible icon syndrome that seems to afflict wargames great and small, and there's no direct explanation of what they all mean in the manual. Plus, while you're looking at maps, there really should be a clearer indication of when you're 'zooming in and out' mode and when you're not - changing the shape of the cursor, perhaps. And when you're driving tanks around the collision detection can be a little imprecise, particularly where buildings are involved - The Real Jonathan)

In fact, Campaign marks a sad day for the wargame. If this is the way things are heading, perhaps we'd better off returning to pencil and paper-based... (Oh, clear off. Campaign is simply great. It's easily the best wargame I've played in all the bitter years I've been doing this sort of thing for AP. I'm not sure I'd go so far as to recommend it to arcade-game-only people - there's still going to be too much strategy in it for them. But if you like the sound of recreating World War II on your Amiga, but you've (sensibly) been deterred by the low marks wargames tend to get at the back of AP, here's the game for you. It's even been thoughtfully presented, with a brilliant intro disk, and some smashing posters and newspaper reprints thrown in.)

(It's a shame some of Campaign's more niggling faults couldn't have been cleared up bya bit of independent play-testing. But we ought to be jolly grateful it's here at all. Now - please! - no more flashing squares and movement phases. - The Real Jonathan)


Campaign 1
Here's an overview of where's the action's going to be taking place. WE've got three groups of tanks - two American and one British - and an airfield with some planes on. We've got to get across that river, get through the small village (where there are likely to be some Germans waiting) and then attack the German-occupied town further to the south.

Campaign 1
We've arrived at the village and engaged a Panzer division. Having been given the option of an automatic battle - where the outcome is decided on the relative strength of each side - and a manula one, we've gone for manual. Our tanks (the yellow ones) start driving round the screen, looking for Germans (who are red).

Campaign 1
Things aren't going too well, so we've taken direct control of one of our tanks. It's moved by controlling each track separately, which might take a bit of getting used to, and the turret can be swivelled round and moved up and down. Aiming is largely down to guesswork - and lots of practice - and is especially tricky on the move.

Campaign 1 logo

The smell of diesel, the sound of gunfire, the heat of battle... yes, it is Nick Veitch arriving for work.

The logic of war seems to be that if the belligerent can fight, he will do it with tanks. Certainly during WWII, from the initial Blitzkrieg to the last stand at Berlin, when something had to be done it was done with heavy armour. Tanks are the backbones of the modern army. At least that is what Empire believe, and who can blame them for adding their string of reasonably successful tank simulations (Team Yankee, Pacific Islands) with yet another.

Campaign bears very little relation to those previous titles though. Although predominantly a tank simulation, the strategy aspect has been developed far beyond just popping into your trusty two-tracked friend and blasting holes into the enemy.

The campaign map (which can be anything from the size of Greater London to most of Western Europe) is the focus of attention now. Tanks, ships, aircraft, convoys and factories must all be managed properly to produce a successful outcome to the conflict. Everything is arranged in groups and depicted on the map, with optional unit names if you cannot tell your shock force from your light artillery.

The issuing of orders is as simple as clicking once on the unit and once on its destination. The computer can take control of any units that you are not particularly bothered about, which means you can leave it to take care of airstrikes and ship-to-shore shellings if you cannot be bothered re-designating the targets every half an hour.

When opening forces get too close to each other a close quarters combat ensues. You are given the option to let the computer calculate the outcome, but you will never win any medals that way and you could suffer a shock defeat. At least if you are controlling the tanks you know who to blame when the dust settles.

A schematic map showing trees, buildings and minefields in the surrounding area is displayed, along with small boxes depicting your tanks. To take direct control of a tank simply click it on and it will turn blue. The you can go to the 'from the turret viewpoint' and see the terrain as it would appear to the tank commander.

The surrounding terrain is quite well detailed considering the speed at which it animates. The detail level of the ground and of the surface objects can be altered to allow for accelerated machines. This doesn't quite compensate for the speed of an '030 though, and the stealth and tactics of tank battle turns into a dodgem ride with machine guns.

The tank is actually best controlled by the keyboard and a preferences screen allows you to choose whichever keys you like for the specific tasks. Each track on the vehicle is controlled individually and, where applicable, the turret is moved left or right independently. Some of the vehicles can also tow the field guns around, but if you are deploying field guns and trucks on the front-line then something is going wrong...

Air and artillery support can be controlled manually or by the computer and can deliver a devastating blow to a close group of enemy vehicles, although more often than not you can hit your own tanks if engaging at close quarters.

All the vehicles and aircraft in the game have been lovingly researched and are very accurately represented. This not only applies to the polygon rendering of the vehicles, but also to their physical capabilities as well; speed, range, armour gun traverse - every important military aspect of the vehicle is taken into consideration. All the information in the 170 page equipment manual finds its way into the game somewhere.

The vehicle types used for the main ground forces include engineer, spotter, infantry, light and heavy artillery units as well as MBTs. Each has a different function - engineers can lay or clear mines, spotters direct artillery fire, etc. All of them, that is, apart from the infantry.

The use of infantry is not explored at all in the game which is not only a great omission in terms of historical fact, but can also severely restrict strategic options. No airborne units means no way of securing important objectives ahead of your advancing machines.

No infantry means that easily defendable positions such as bridges, mountain roads and cities must be protected by tanks. This does not detract from the fun of the game, just from its realism.

The map editing section allows you to create your own battles, down to the rivers, roads and minefields and also allows for a bit of fiddling if you think a campaign is going particularly badly. This boosts the longevity of the game quite considerably, even though there are a lot of sample campaigns included.

The computer controlled units show no flair for strategy, but their tactical manoeuvers are quite good and, if provided with decent equipment, can make for a challenging game.

Campaign 1... ....From Northern Africa to Northern Europe logo

Empire * £15.99

When you bought Campaign, you got the major Allied vs Germany land battles of 1943/44. it successfully combined three-dimensional battle sequences with strategy and simulation tactics. The strategy centred around making high-level tactical decisions which could make the difference between winning and losing a battle. With this new disk it goes a step further down the history line.

Northern Africa saw quite a bit of tank-related combat, with Rommel and Monty gunning for each other in fine style. Deserts are good places for big armoured battle because not much gets in the way. Although this is not the entire reason they were all there, it makes for an interesting scenario in Campaign. You must drive over hills, down wadis and through minefields in order to have your violence, and great fun it is too.

But let us not forget the spirited, but ultimately, futile defence of Berlin by the Germans. That is here too. In fact there are 25 maps, each depicting a different land scenario. Russia gets a look in as does Italy. In fact, there is a whole world war in this mission disk alone.

It is all much of the same stuff, except in different places. If you are a veteran Campaigner, you will be pleased with the breadth of this, but if you are expecting anything really new and surprising, you are barking up the wrong tree.

But 25 scenarios, thousands of tanks, tons of airpower and the odd supply truck can keep you well engrossed for long enough to feel you have got your money's worth. And you can edit the maps and forces as well. It is great, although it does help if you are a Campaign fain in the first place. Oh, and to whoever wrote the manual, it is Rommel's North African Offensive - he never got round to a North American one.

Campaign 1... ....From Northern Africa to Northern Europe logo

Durch 25 Panzerschlachten mußt du gehen, um am Ende von "Campaign" zu stehen - wer das schon hinter sich gebracht hat, dem koppt Empire mit dieser Datadisk jetzt weitere 25 Gemetzel in den den Digi-Sandkasten!

Vom Gameplay her ist natürlich alles beim alten geblieben, was bei einer nur zusammen mit dem Hauptprogramm lauffähigen Egänzungsdisk ja auch kaum jemanden verwundern dürfte. Für die Strategen mit einem Hang zu Simulation und Action werden also wieder lauter historische Panzerschlachten aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg aufgeboten, die sie entweder auf alliierter oder deutscher Seite (ohne Wahlmöglichkeit) erleben.

Dazu müssen sie zunächst per Icon-/Maussteuerung auf den zoombaren, aber etwas karg ausgefallenen Landkarten die verschiedenen Panzerzüge und Bodentruppen zu den strategisch wichtigen Punkten beordern; gelegentlich mischen auch Luftwaffe und Marine mit.

Beim Zusammenstoß mit dem Feind darf man dann auf Wunsch wieder selbst einen der Tanks ganz oder teilweise steuern, was allerdings mit einer nicht ganz unkomplizierten Tastaturbedienung einhergeht. Schließlich und endlich bietet auch die Präsentation das gewohnte Bild: Die Vektorgrafik in den Aktionszenen ist nach wie vor nicht unbedingt berauschend, und die Übersichtskarte verdient ihren Namen kaum noch, sobald sich mehrere Truppenverbände gleichzeitig auf ihr tummeln. Tröstlicherweise röhren aber wenigstens die Motoren naturgetreu wie eh und je, dasselbe in Bum gilt für die Explosions-FX.

Bei soviel Altbewährtem konnten wir leichten Herzens auf eine eigene Bewertung dieser rund 45,- DM teuren Zusatzdiskette verzichten, dafür verraten wir Euch, daß die 25 Szenarien von der libyischen Wüste bis Stalingrad alle gleichermaßen umfangreich und komplex ausgefallen sind. Genügend Platz zum Umschreiben der Geschichte ist damit zweifellos vorhanden... (md)

Campaign 1... ....From Northern Africa to Northern Europe logo


Coming from Empire, you would expect any World War II sim to deal heavily in tanks, as indeed Campaign does. In fact, the only halfway interesting part of the game is the simulated tank battles where you can control any of the vehicles involved, from thin skinned scout cars right up to a well armoured Sherman, or the Prize of the Wehrmacht, the Tiger.

The strategy element is fairly haphazard. You can control the movements of your tanks, the production of the factories and the deployment of any active aircraft. This is all done via the mouse on a fairly decent scale battle map. This is fair enough if you can be pixel accurate with the mouse and you can do it in real time as the game unfolds.

This disk hopes to develop the strategy side of the game more. There are 25 new scenarios based on famous campaigns. The battle orders, geography and starting positions are all fairly accurate, but your campaign is unlikely to proceed in the same way that the original did.

The order given to troops are just never accurate enough and the logistics is a nightmare - tanks can be stranded in perpetuity through lack of fuel because all the gas has been delivered to the pixel next door.

Since it possible to create your own scenarios in Campaign, the worth of this disk is questionable. The scenarios themselves are well thought out, but can only be as good as the original Campaign. Since the only decent part of the game is controlling the tank forces as they clash, and since it does not really matter, for the purposes of the situation, whether they are fighting in Berlin or Basingstoke,

I would suggest that scenario disks for Campaign, however good, are a waste of time. You will also need the original program to run the data disk.